Introduction

Embedded Systems or Electronics systems are an application Specific Integrated Circuit. Processor used to perform a specific or dedicated application, other words we can say that if processor embeds on the any application then the application known as the embedded systems. Embedded System is pre-programmed to do a specific function while a general purpose system could be used to run any program of your choice. Further the Embedded Processor Is only one component of the electronic system of which it is the part. It is cooperating with the rest of the components to achieve the overall function. Today’s we see various equipment’s like mobile, telephone, TV, Refrigerator, washing machine, geezer, and microwave oven. All the devices are example of the embedded systems.

Need of Embedded Systems

When the human need that some of their daily works do automatically with some intelligent devices. Then we know that the necessity is the need of the invention. Therefore to solve the small application as well as large application microprocessor and microcontroller are developed, these devices are capable to manipulate the input data and give the output. There we need a helper where microcontroller or microprocessor based application do the function with highly accuracy. Suppose we want to heat up our water for bathing and we need that water heat up only 60 degree temperature and after that heating system automatically shut off. Therefore geezer is available in the market they do same function. Other appliances like washing machine, microwave oven, and toaster also work to remove our daily life problems. These all devices are embedded systems based applications.
Processor based systems divided into two categories
1. General purpose
2. Special purpose

General purpose

General purpose devices are like PC Desktop and LAPTOPS. These devices are design that they do function according to requirements by the help of the drivers. Suppose we have laptop and we want to attach a hardware to program the IC. At this time we install the driver of that software and program the IC. So general purpose processor can do multi function and run any program according to our choice.

Specific Purpose

Microcontroller is the heart of the special/specific purpose processor and they can do only specific task. These type of system program only at installation time and after that they function according to the program. In our daily routine life we used various types of gadgets like cell-phone, camera, sensible appliances, car and many more. All these appliances perform their dedicated task because they are used re-programmed microcontroller. Above figure it clearly illustrated that our 99% market cover by these microcontroller based application.

History

The first embedded system was the Apollo Guidance Computer, developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. To reduce the size and weight of the circuit Apollo developed monolithic integrated circuits. The first mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile that had been in service since 1960 [Jour1996]. It was built from transistor logic and had a hard disk for main memory. The first microprocessor was designed by Intel 4004 in 1960, for calculators and other small function systems but still required many external memory and support chips. In 1968, the Volkswagen 1600 used a microprocessor in its fuel injection system, launching the very first embedded system in the automotive industry.

As the application increases, cost of microprocessors based application becomes high, so the new device invent that’s called microcontroller. In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released a “standard” for programmable microcontrollers, including almost any computer-based controllers, such as single board computers, numerical, and event-based controllers. Today, a car’s electronics cost more than the steel used to build it. In fact, Embedded Systems are also spread in all other sectors of the economy and in all areas of our private life. In 2000, there were around 10 billion microprocessors