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Modeling of pulse position


In pulse location modification, the position of the pulse changes as a modified signal function, and the pulse width and width is always maintained. The position of each pulse varies according to the instantaneous sampling of the modified signal. To implement the pulse site modification, two integrated 555 timer circuits, one in stable mode and one in isolation mode are used. The signal modification is applied to the first 5 pin of 555 IC, which [...]

Modeling of pulse position2019-04-26T17:42:44+00:00

Square wave Generation using 555 Timer


Square wave generation using 555 timer IC need extra circuit arrangement in astable multivibrator. For Square wave generation duty cycle should be 50% and with the help of 555 timer IC. So a diode connected parallel with the R2 resistor. At charging time resistance R1, diode and capacitor come in the picture and discharge through diode D2, resistance R2 via discharging pin number 7 of 555 timer IC. By adjusting the values ​​of resistors R1 [...]

Square wave Generation using 555 Timer2019-04-25T14:25:36+00:00

The Monostable 555 Timer


555 hours per hour The operation and output of the mono-stabilizer 555 is exactly the same as the transistor described in the Multi-Traceability Uniform tutorial. The difference is that the 555 timer is replaced. Consider 555 hours of circuits below. 555 tangible time When a negative pulse (0 V) is applied to the mandatory input (pin 2) of the configured oscillator 555, this input is detected in the internal comparator (comparator # 1) and "sets" [...]

The Monostable 555 Timer2019-04-18T17:43:20+00:00

Astable Multivibrator using Transistors


Astable Multivibrator using Transistors Multivibrator is an astable multivibrator or multivibrator that can be used freely and without any fixed condition. The output is constantly moving between two unstable states without the help of external stimulation. The length of each state is determined by the time constant of the resistance-capacitor (RC). Multivibrator stable with cross-circuit In the above diagram, we can find two wiring transformers as switches. Read the transistor section as a switch. When [...]

Astable Multivibrator using Transistors2019-04-16T17:16:15+00:00

IEEE 488


IEEE 488 The IEEE 488 is an 8-bit parallel multi-master interface bus specification for digital communication at short distances. IEEE 488 is made as HP-IB (Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus) and is commonly referred to as GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus). This is the subject of different standards. Although it was made in the late 1960s for the connection of automated testing equipment, it was also successful in the 1970s and 1980s as a peripheral bus for [...]

IEEE 4882019-04-12T18:01:35+00:00



RS-232 In telecommunications, the recommended standard 232 [1], RS-232, refers to a standard introduced in 1960 [2] for serial data transmission. It formally defines the signals which are connected between a DTE (data terminal), for example a computer terminal, and a DCE (data line termination device or data communication device), for example a modem. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of the signals, their significance and the physical dimensions and pin assignments of [...]


8259 Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC)


8259 programmable interrupt controller (PIC) The 8259 is defined as a programmable interrupt controller (PIC). In 8085 and 8086 there are 5 hardware interrupts and 2 hardware interrupts. By connecting to 8259 in a processor, you can increase the interruptions in processing capacity. 8259 combines multiple input inputs with a single output disruption. The interface of a single PIC offers 8 inconvenience inputs of IR0-IR7. For example, 8085 and 8259 interfaces increase the ability to [...]

8259 Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC)2019-04-04T11:09:38+00:00

Intel 8253 – Programmable Interval Timer


Intel 8253 - Programmable Interval Timer The Intel 8253 and 8254 processors are programmable interval programmers (PTIs) designed for microprocessors to perform timing and counting functions using three 16-bit registers. Each register has 2 input pins. For example, clock IN  and 1 pin for the output "OUT". To operate a counter, a 16-bit counter is loaded into its register. On command, the counter starts to go down to 0 and then generates a pulse that [...]

Intel 8253 – Programmable Interval Timer2019-03-27T18:13:40+00:00

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