Artificial intelligence – Overview

Since the invention of computers or machines, their ability to perform various tasks has grown exponentially. People have developed the power of computer systems through their multiple work spaces, their increasing speed and their small size over time.

A branch of computer science called Artificial Intelligence continues to create computers or intelligent machines like humans.

What is artificial intelligence?

According to John McCarthy, the father of artificial intelligence, this is “science and technology of the production of intelligent machines, in particular of intelligent computer programs”.

Artificial intelligence is a way to think smartly about a computer, a robot controlled by a computer or software, just like smart people think.

Artificial intelligence concerns the study of how the human brain thinks and learns, decides and works to solve a problem, and then uses the results of this study to develop intelligent software and systems.

Philosophy of AI

While exploiting the power of computer systems, man’s curiosity asks him: “Can a machine think and behave like a human?

Therefore, the development of AI began with the intention of producing similar intelligence in the machines we consider increased in humans.

Goals of the AI

  • Create expert systems – Systems that show intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain and advise their users.
  • Implementing human intelligence in machines – Creating systems that understand, think, learn and behave like human beings.

What contributes to AI?

Artificial intelligence focuses mainly on the development of computer functions, such as human intelligence. Reason, learning and problem solving.

Among the following domains, one or more domains can contribute to the creation of an intelligent system.

Artificial intelligence focuses mainly on the development of computer functions, such as human intelligence. Reason, learning and problem solving.

Among the following domains, one or more domains can contribute to the creation of an intelligent system.

Programming without and with IA

AI and non-AI programming differs as follows:

Programming without AI programming with AI

A computer program without artificial intelligence can answer specific questions it should answer. An artificial intelligence computer program can answer the general questions it intends to solve.

Changing the program requires a change in its structure. Artificial intelligence programs can absorb new changes by collecting very independent information. This allows you to change only one minute of program information without affecting the structure.

Change is not simple and fast. This can have a negative effect on the program. Change of program fast and easy.

What is the technique of AI?

In the real world, knowledge has undesirable properties:

  • The volume is huge and almost unimaginable.
  • It is neither well organized nor formatted.
  • It is constantly evolving.

AI technique is a way to organize and effectively use knowledge for:

  • This should be heard by the people who deliver it.
  • It should be easily editable to correct errors.
  • It should be useful in many situations, even incomplete or inaccurate.

Artificial intelligence techniques accelerate the execution of the complex program with which it is equipped.

AI applications

Artificial intelligence was prevalent in several areas:

  • Game: Artificial intelligence plays a crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, trios, etc., where the machine can imagine a variety of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
  • Natural language processing – You can interact with the natural language computer spoken by humans.
  • Expert Systems: Some applications integrate machines, software and specific information to justify and advise them. They give users explanations and advice.
  • Vision Systems: These systems capture and interpret visual inputs to the computer. For example

o Photos are taken on a spy plane to understand spatial information or a map of areas.

o Doctors use the clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.

Police use computer software that detects the criminal’s face based on the stored image created by the artist for forensic purposes.

  • Speech Recognition – Some intelligent systems are able to hear and understand speech in the form of sentences and their meaning while a human being speaks about it. He can deal with various accents, slang words, background noise, changes in human sounds due to cold and so on.
  • Handwriting recognition: The handwriting recognition software reads texts written on paper with a pen or pen on the screen. He can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert them into editable text.
  • Smart Robots: Robots can perform the tasks assigned by a human. They have sensors that capture real physical data such as light, heat, temperature, motion, sound, shock, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and a large memory to show the intelligence. In addition, they can learn from their mistakes and adapt to the new environment.

    History of AI

    Here is the story of AI in the 20th century –

    Milestone / year of innovation

    1923 Karel Čapek launches a comedy entitled “Rossum Universal Robots” (RUR) in London, the first use of the word “robot” in English.

    1943 Foundation of neural networks.

    1945 Isaac Asimov, a graduate of Columbia University, coined the term robotic.

    1950 Alan Turing presents the Turing test for the evaluation of intelligence and publishes information technology and intelligence. Claude Shannon published a detailed analysis of the chess.

    1956 John McCarthy invents the concept of artificial intelligence. Demonstration of the first RN program at Carnegie Mellon University.

    In 1958, John McCarthy invented the LISP programming language for artificial intelligence.

    1964 Danny Bobrow’s thesis at MIT shows that computers include natural language well enough to correctly solve algebraic word problems.

    1965 Joseph Weizenbaum of MIT builds ELIZA, an interactive problem that communicates in English.

    1969 Scientists from the Stanford Research Institute develop Shakey, a robot oriented to locomotion, perception and problem solving.

    1973 The Assembly Robotics group of the University of Edinburgh builds Freddy, the famous Scottish robot that uses vision to locate and assemble models.

    1979 The first computerized autonomous vehicle is built, Stanford Cart.

    1985 Harold Cohen designs and demonstrates Aaron’s drawing program.

    1990 Significant progress in all sectors of the AI ​​-

    • Significant self-learning demonstrations
    • Argumentation on a case by case basis
    • Multi-agent planning
    • Planning
    • Data mining, Web Crawler
    • Understanding of natural language and translation
    • Vision, virtual reality
    • Games

    1997 The “Deep Blue Chess” program defeats the then Chess World Champion Garry Kasparov.

    2000 interactive robot pets will become commercially available. MIT shows Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The nomadic robot explores remote areas of Antarctica and locates meteorites.