Modeling of pulse position

In pulse location modification, the position of the pulse changes as a modified signal function, and the pulse width and width is always maintained. The position of each pulse varies according to the instantaneous sampling of the modified signal. To implement the pulse site modification, two integrated 555 timer circuits, one in stable mode and […]

Square wave Generation using 555 Timer

Square wave generation using 555 timer IC need extra circuit arrangement in astable multivibrator. For Square wave generation duty cycle should be 50% and with the help of 555 timer IC. So a diode connected parallel with the R2 resistor. At charging time resistance R1, diode and capacitor come in the picture and discharge through […]

Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer

Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer Circuit and operation Astable Multivibrator using 555 Timer has no state stable. It generated free running frequency without any output source. The IC 555 can be used as an independent multivibrator with three external components: two resistors (R1 and R2) and capacitor (C). The diagram for IC 555 timer is […]

The Monostable 555 Timer

555 hours per hour The operation and output of the mono-stabilizer 555 is exactly the same as the transistor described in the Multi-Traceability Uniform tutorial. The difference is that the 555 timer is replaced. Consider 555 hours of circuits below. 555 tangible time When a negative pulse (0 V) is applied to the mandatory input […]

Astable Multivibrator using Transistors

Astable Multivibrator using Transistors Multivibrator is an astable multivibrator or multivibrator that can be used freely and without any fixed condition. The output is constantly moving between two unstable states without the help of external stimulation. The length of each state is determined by the time constant of the resistance-capacitor (RC). Multivibrator stable with cross-circuit […]

555 Timer

Introduction 555 Timer The 555 timer was introduced more than 40 years ago. Thanks to its relative simplicity, its ease of use and its low costs, it has been used in thousands of applications and is still widely used. Working of 555 Timer IC To understand the working of 555 timer IC we have to […]

IEEE 488

IEEE 488 The IEEE 488 is an 8-bit parallel multi-master interface bus specification for digital communication at short distances. IEEE 488 is made as HP-IB (Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus) and is commonly referred to as GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus). This is the subject of different standards. Although it was made in the late 1960s for […]


RS-232 In telecommunications, the recommended standard 232 [1], RS-232, refers to a standard introduced in 1960 [2] for serial data transmission. It formally defines the signals which are connected between a DTE (data terminal), for example a computer terminal, and a DCE (data line termination device or data communication device), for example a modem. The […]

8259 Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC)

8259 programmable interrupt controller (PIC) The 8259 is defined as a programmable interrupt controller (PIC). In 8085 and 8086 there are 5 hardware interrupts and 2 hardware interrupts. By connecting to 8259 in a processor, you can increase the interruptions in processing capacity. 8259 combines multiple input inputs with a single output disruption. The interface […]

Intel 8253 – Programmable Interval Timer

Intel 8253 – Programmable Interval Timer The Intel 8253 and 8254 processors are programmable interval programmers (PTIs) designed for microprocessors to perform timing and counting functions using three 16-bit registers. Each register has 2 input pins. For example, clock INĀ  and 1 pin for the output “OUT”. To operate a counter, a 16-bit counter is […]